zondag 8 januari 2012

The National Revolutionary Movement in the Weimar Republic - Part I

The so-called "Nouvelle Droite" and other militant revolutionaries in the current scene claim concepts such as "Querfront", National Bolshevism" or "National-Revolutionarism". All of these concepts mainly originate from the period of the Weimar republic. The following examination will seek to define such concepts from their historical development, so they can be used by present time revolutionaries.

The National Revolutionaries in the Weimar republic are difficult to compare to the current National-Revolutionary groups. That's not only because of their completely different social influence but also because of the essential difference that the representatives of the "Nouvelle Droites" (but also of the militant movement) virtually did not develop any new personal or ideological thinking. They rather looked to the historic "range" of ideologies (from the "Jungkonservativen" to the National Socialists) as it happened to be of use. For example, the NR theoreticus Henning Eichberg (active in the '70s and '80s) is generally regarded as the founder of the so-called "regionalism concept". Fact is that the National Revolutionary Friedrich Hielscher already advocated in the twenties for a regionalization of Europe, because he demanded that the individual nation states had to form into separate "tribes and landscapes" (regions) in favor of a greater Reich. Mainly because of their ideological eclecticism (hodgepodge of different ideologies), the current NR currents limited the criteria to distinguish themselves from the time of the Weimar republic. At that time they wanted nothing more and nothing less than erasing the traces of the Great French Revolution and replace it with new values.

"Conservative Revolution" and "Revolutionary Nationalism"

With the "Konservative Revolution" we mean that movement within the National movement, which developed after the lost World War and the collapse of the empire (1918/1919) and which took a sharp frontal position against the old monarchists. Against these reactionaries they've put the ideas of 1914, they've put the National people-community against the class society, the National state against the prototype of Bismarck (Second Empire), the "Third Reich" against the primacy of the economy and the primacy of politics, driven by a elitist "vanguard". Their main enemy was Liberalism. They wanted nothing more and nothing less than erasing the traces of the Great French Revolution and replace it with their new values.

The most important theoreticians of the "Konservative Revolution" were Oswald Sprengler and Arthur Moeller van den Brück, who founded together with others ( who qualify themselves as "Young Conservatives") the Nationals' club in June 1919 and later on the "Political College". One of the movements within "Konservative Revolution" called themselves "National Revolutionary" in the late 20's. They propagated a "German revolution", which for them was identical to the World and the ideas of 1914. Their reference point: The war of attrition and the associated emphasis on struggle, death and militarism. Accordingly, it was the image of the State: The hierarchical structure of the army was projected on the State. Instead of the civilian as the prototype, it became the frontline soldier and/or worker (the "worker-soldier" by Niekisch, hence the hammer and the sword and the red and black, symbolizing the symbiosis of working class and militarism). The manifestos of the National Revolutionaries were "no more considered than those of the "völkische" movements, but they were certainly louder, wilder and more belligerent as other anti-democratic publications. The hatred of the National Revolutionaries against the existing regime was more concentrated, more united, pitiless as the war, from which it originated.

The National Revolutionaries were particularly represented in the former Freikorps units and direct action groups such as the "Bund Oberland Wehrwolf", as well as in the ranks of the "Bündische Jügend". The "Alte Sozial-Demokratische Partei" (ASP) established by Augustus Winning and Ernst niekisch, largely embodied the ideology of "Revolutionary Nationalism".

The ideological personality par excellence of the National Revolutionaries was Ernst Jünger.

Nationale & Socialistische Actie / Autonome Nationale Socialisten

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